APA Sample Sources 7th Edition
APA is a citation format commonly used in the social sciences. This handout illustrates how to cite common sources on the references page.
The following information and samples are taken from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
For more information, please visit the following websites:
- American Psychological Association: www.apa.org
- Research and Documentation Online: http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/redoc5e/
- OWL Purdue Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
Reference Page Examples: Print Sources
(For more information, see pages 316-352 in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association)
Book by One Author
Last Name, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.
Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college: How to prepare citations, avoid plagiarism, and achieve real academic success. University of Chicago Press.
Book by Two to Twenty Authors/Editors
Last Name, F. M., & Last Name, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher Name.
Buranen, L., & Roy, A. M. (Eds.). (1999). Perspectives on plagiarism and intellectual property in a postmodern world. State University of New York Press.
Two or More Works by the Same Author (arrange by date)
Harris, R. (2001). The plagiarism handbook: Strategies for preventing, detecting and dealing with plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishers.
Harris, R. (2002). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishers.
Edited Book with an Author
Last Name, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (E. E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Last Name, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. page numbers of chapter). Publisher.
Hannah, B. (2003). Midnight and I’m not famous yet. In N. Baym (Ed.), The Norton anthology of American literature (pp. 2460-2468). W. W. Norton & Co.
Last Name, F. M., Last Name, F. M., Last Name, F. M., & Last Name, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), page numbers.
Gooden, A., Imhof, R., King, A. O., Little, J., & Markley, S. B. (2003). Learning to make a difference. College and Research Libraries News, 64, 443-446.
Silverman, G. (2002, July 15). It’s a bird, it’s a plane, it’s plagiarism buster! Newsweek, 140, 12.
Shaw, M. (2005, November 28). Internet plagiarism rampant in colleges. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, B10, B12.
Article with No Author
Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
When academic dishonesty happens on your campus. (2002, November 8). NISOD Innovation.
Signed or Unsigned Encyclopedia or Reference Works
Dutton, D. (1998). Plagiarism and forgery. In The encyclopedia of applied ethics (Vol. 3, pp. 503-510). Academic Press.
Plagiarism. (2003). In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). Merriam-Webster.
Reference Page Examples: Electronic Sources
(More information can be found on pages 180-224 in 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association)
Journal Articles and DOIs
- APA citations should include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), when available, of an article in the references page. Look for a string of numbers that begins with 10 at the top of the first page, possibly hidden behind a button labeled "Article," "PubMed," or some other database name.
- When an article has a DOI, use the DOI instead of the URL.
- If an article does not have a DOI but is from a database, it is not necessary to include the URL.
- When a DOI is not assigned, use the exact URL (if article is open-access) or URL of journal home page (if subscription is required for access).
- According to the 7th edition, include a retrieval date if the information is likely to change over time.
- Bold and hyperlink the URL or DOI.